Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Leading and Managing People for Innovation Skills. Answer: Introduction The following assignment has evaluated significant aspects of the leadership style of Alan George Lafley who is considered for his remarkable contribution as CEO of Protector and Gamble (PG). The analysis has found several major facets such as ethics, theories, evolution and psychology of leadership in context to the leadership style of A.G Lafley. The assessment has tried to understand whether the leadership style of the mentioned persona matches with the concept of multicultural leadership or not. Leadership style of Alan George Lafley Alan George Lafley who has performed as CEO, president and chairperson for several years started his career by joining PG after his graduation from the business school of Harvard in the year 1977. After giving ten years of leadership as the CEO in PG, unfortunately, he was replaced by Robert McDonald due to having rapid complaints from the investors and constant decrease in sale. It has been Lafleys credible performance that PG called him back even after his retirement in 2000. According to the Journal report of Wall Street, his leadership doubled the sale rate and the company earned near about $84 billion (Tuna 2016). The consumer is the ultimate boss- has been the fundamental concept of Lafley that boosted him to become a wise and progressive CEO. According to A.G Lafley, a leader should perform as a bridge to the world outside. Additionally, he believes that an efficient leader should focus on a businesss structural charisma, a companys strategic curriculum about its core competency and its current position comparing with the rival enterprises (Tuna 2016). As per Lafleys point of view, robust and creative leadership is required to establish an organization's vision. Hence he stated that a leader cannot ignore his values and standards which have been shaped by him for the fellow subordinates. Leadership ethics A person should be called an effective leader when he would be found concentrating on what is right and promote positive influence upon subordinates by helping them to choose the right. According to Rice (2013), an efficient and fruitful business leader prefers to minimize the indulgence of negative interpersonal attitude and always considers taking other's opinions in the case of making any ethical decisions. It is essential to value other's point of view and show respect while serving as a leader. Lafley acquired the position of CEO in PG when the company has been suffering from the rapid downfall in the Asian market (News.pg.com 2016). Lafleys initiative to reinforce a management full of ethical values, principles and concrete purposes leading to the company's success for decades is indicative of the fact that he has considered following the basic leadership ethics. There has been a time when PG has been criticized for being ignorant about the laws and regulations. Lafley fought out all such criticism by defining the fact that the company has conducted its operations by following what is right. His leadership helped the enterprise to do business by giving fair treatment and priority to all (Wade 2013). Moreover, following his leadership the company concentrated upon not only their achievement, rather they focus on to investigate whether the success has been earned legally. Leadership Evolution The concept of leadership has gone through a rapid evolution over years as the idea of a directive and oppressive and autocratic leadership has now shifted to Democratic leadership (Rice 2013). In the current business scenario, leaders in business consider taking possible participation which in a way supports them in providing motivation which a possible aspect of leadership. CCL (Center for Creative Leadership) has identified that 83% of the survey upon leadership proves that the autocratic concept of leadership has gone through a rapid evolution over past few years. Lafley is among one of those leaders who have changed the concept of top-down management concept to a progressive and individual thinking oriented management. Lafleys innovative leadership skills like understanding consumer's feelings and point of views. He spent years to visit countries and going directly to the customers to get information about their demands (Bloomberg.com 2016). His leadership progressed from being a mere employee to the chairman to ultimately the CEO of PG. Leadership theory Evolution in leadership has changed from Great man, trait theory to Participative, Contingency, transformational, transactional and Situational leadership. According to Great Man and trait theory, histories are made by great men who have in born heroic traits like intelligence, charisma in behavior. As per participative theory, leaders should engage their fellow subordinates in time of decision making (Smith 2014). Based on contingency theory decisions and action by the leaders should be taken base on individual situation and their importance. Following Lafleys leadership pattern, it seems that he believes in taking decisions based on individual situation and therefore his leadership style changes rapidly. For instance, his initial role as a leader has been to visit Asian countries to have full control over the market of that domain finally. Later his leadership transformed to his return to the United States to take over PG's business operations for beauty products. On the other hand, in the time of the crisis in the year 2000, he changed his strategy and started to break and rebuild the company to keep RG's position secure in the market (News.pg.com 2016). Thus it seems that his leadership style matches with the Transformational theory of leadership. According to the theory, leaders interact with subordinates to provide a proper amount of motivation which enhances employee productivity (Smith 2014). Psychology of leadership and its multicultural trend Over years the psychological concept of leadership has changed as unlike previous time leaders now prefers to give ear to the values and point views of the subordinates rather than using intelligence and charisma. A.G Lafley is one significant example of it. Lafley believes that leadership should not be limited to the thinking that leaders are born and not made, and leadership only depends on traits like charisma, intellectual capabilities (Lafley and Charan 2014). According to Lafley, he grew to become a successful leader and his intensity to win helped him to gain that. It is, therefore, indicative of the fact that Lafley has followed the newly emerged psychology of leadership. Lafley specifically visited Japan and other parts of South East Asia and had good amount of interaction with the customers to acquire data about individual demand and desire regarding their products (Lafley and Martin 2013). As per multicultural leadership, leaders are driven to make geography oriented performance and should move outside their comfort zone. Conclusion From the above assessment, it can be deducted that A.G Lafley's leadership style matches with the transformational theory of leadership as he prefers to transform the behavior of his fellow subordinates by motivating them. Furthermore, it is understandable from the analysis that his steps and contribution to PG are an example of multicultural leadership trend. Reference Bloomberg.com. (2016).A.G. Lafleys Innovation Skills Will Weather PGs Storm - Bloomberg. [online] Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-06-03/a-dot-g-dot-lafley-s-innovation-skills-will-weather-p-and-g-s-storm [Accessed 2 Sep. 2016]. Lafley, A.G. and Charan, R., 2014.PG's innovation culture. Strategy+ Business. Lafley, A.G. and Martin, R.L., 2013. Playing to win.Foreign Affairs,73. News.pg.com. (2016).A.G. Lafley Rejoins Procter Gamble as Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer | PG News | Events, Multimedia, Public Relations. [online] Available at: https://news.pg.com/press-release/pg-corporate-announcements/ag-lafley-rejoins-procter-gamble-chairman-president-and-chi [Accessed 2 Sep. 2016]. Rice, G., 2013. Book ReviewKeeping It Real: The Role of Authenticity in Leadership and High Performance.Global Business and Organizational Excellence,32(5), pp.105-110. Smith, E.B., 2014. The Effect of Critical Optimism on Transformational Leadership.Leadership Organizational Management Journal,2014(1). Tuna, C. (2016).A.G. Lafley's Advice for Future Leaders. [online] WSJ. Available at: https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB124451772932297029 [Accessed 2 Sep. 2016]. Wade, J., 2013. Procter Gamble's former CEO on risk and strategy.Risk Management,60(2), pp.16-18.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Existence Of God In David Humes Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Cleanthes argument from design is successful in supporting the idea that the universe has an ordered arrangement and pattern. This argument is not sound in its ability to prove the existence of the Christian God. However, Cleanthes does present a sound case for order in the universe, which can be seen as an aspect of ones faith in a Supreme Creator. In the argument from design, Cleanthes is attempting to discover and defend the basic foundations of religion by using the same methods applied in scientific thought. Paramount in the process of scientific thought is reliance on previous observation and experience of certain causes resulting in specific effects. If a scientist experiences a million times that when chemical A is directly exposed to fire, an enormous explosion takes place, it is logical that the scientist is wholly expecting the same effect the next time the experiment is run. It appears through this line of reasoning that the argument from design relies heavily on the relative probability of an event occurring over a specified period of time. This idea corresponds to human interpretation of the Universe in that perception without the aid of experience is not sufficient in the realization process of a particular phenomenon. If a human were left only to their own perceptions of the universe without prior experiences, th ey would be able to make several value judgements, but without experience with these judgements it would be impossible to determine which were genuine. (p.61, par.2) Even if one believes that truth is relative, they must agree that there is an experience that has occurred in the past causing this person to label a particular outcome as being true or false. If I have no prior experience or knowledge of the qualities of a tree, I would be left to hypothesize on these qualities only from what I could perceive by looking at the tree. I may come up with several theories, one of which may happen to be the correct one, but with no prior experience on which to base these guesses, I would have no way of knowing which theory was correct. Philo objects to the use of only human intelligence as the benchmark by which to measure the order of the universe. Nature is also an example of a great wealth of order and arrangement that coexists with the human mind in the universe. He believes that by comparing the order that is present in the universe, being the whole, to the order that appears in the parts, being the human mind and nature, one makes too presumptuous an inference concerning the characteristics of both the whole and its parts. (p. 65) However, it is logical to presume that the qualities of any whole are reflected, at least in part, in the workings of the whole. The use of the watch to analyze the design of the universe originates in the belief that the universe would dictate the qualities of the watch, and would therefore bestow upon the watch characteristics similar to its own. It is indeed arbitrary to select human intelligence as the means by which to analyze whatever order may exist in the universe, but it se ems as logical an example as any. Surely, nature, the cosmos, and other examples of order exist in the universe, but human intelligence is by far the most know entity to humans of any of these examples. It should appear logical to analyze such a monumental task such as the arrangement of the universe using the most know example of design that human beings can comprehend. The next important aspect in Clenthes argument is the implementation of the theory of cause and effect as it applies in the case of perceiving means to an end and presuming that effects follow from a previous, related cause. As mentioned above in regards to the scientist, events that have similar effects are assumed to have similar causes. Cleanthes argues that the universe is nothing but one great machine, subdivided into an infinite number of lesser machines. (p.59, par.4) From human experience with machines, it is believed to be true that they involve a complex system
Sunday, November 24, 2019
A Different Approach on How to Write an Argumentative Essay Essay Example A Different Approach on How to Write an Argumentative Essay Essay A Different Approach on How to Write an Argumentative Essay Essay Essay Topic: Argumentative Writing an argumentative becomes very easy and simple just as long as you learn how to write an argumentative essay. This is an article that will tell you how to write an argumentative essay with ease, following these tips can even make writing the argumentative essay fun and enjoyable. The following tips are written in plain and easy English and can be understood by anyone, so make use of them to write your own argumentative essay.? Select a topic that you strongly believe in The most important thing in how to write an argumentative essay is that the topic you choose should be something that you strongly believe in. Now you must be thinking why I am saying this, the thing is that the argumentative essay is of course arguing about something, it is something like a debate, a debate you need to win. So how can you win a debate or even argue on a subject if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in it right? This is why you need to choose a topic you strongly believe in. Another thing you need to remember is to start your argumentative essay with a sentence and not with a question. Why this is important is once again because you are supporting a subject, there is no question in that. Strong supporting points Once you have decided on the main subject or theme of your argumentative essay, you now need to decide what supporting points you are going to add to it to make it appear more solid and believable. These points should not be against your thesis but instead strong with it. Also keep in mind that your points need to be from reliable sources otherwise your essay will not be appreciated at all. Create Paragraphs Once you have decided the points, now itÃ¢â¬â¢s time for you to make some paragraphs. As with any other type of essay, each point will have one paragraph. Remember not to repeat the same sentences again and again but instead try to add some interesting facts about the points you are including. When you are starting the paragraph, always start with a clear statement and then continue to other smaller points, something sort of like a funnel model. Once again, if you are including a citation or something then always make sure it is from a reliable source. You could also find useful resources from other known people. Write the Introduction After you have done writing the body of the essay, itÃ¢â¬â¢s time for you to write an attention grabbing introduction. It is of extreme importance that you write a really good introduction because this will keep the reader interested and will take him to the main argument. But remember not to offend anyone in your argumentative essay. The Conclusion The ending of the essay is a conclusion, which also has to be written with extreme caution. Wrap up things nicely so that the reader leaves really believing in what you have been saying. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t extend the conclusion but instead write it in a short and sweet way.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The Narrative about My Exchange Program in Dubai - Essay Example The first day entails the trip to Dubai. The reason for my participation in the exchange program was the provisions that my university had to offer. However, the sight of Dubai made a change to all the casual involvement in the program. The city was beautiful, and the sound of traffic made me see how busy the population was at that very moment. The skyscrapers of Dubai were just incredible. The highest building Burj Khalifa was now a gesture that I had previously seen on pictures (Dubai). The building was tall and the tip that was the crest of the building made me wonder the height of the building. Our guide a native who had bright colored attire. The guide put forward that the Dubai was one a composition of the UAE. The most probable factor was that the beautiful city was the most popular of the eight nations that form the United Arab Emirates. The guide told me that Dubai was a center of business. The guide also wore an attractive perfume that was indigenous. The Burj Khalifa had a height of 828 meters. After a while, the guide took me to one of the best hotels in the city. The Burj Al Arab Jumeirah was our stop. The hotel is the face of Dubai in tourism as well as the hospitality advertisements. The hotel has a sail-like appearance. The structure is a mixture of blue and white. The building according to the guide is an actual symbol of the modernity that attributes to the city. There was a private point for the reception for each floor. The smell of the food was very charming, and the sight of the interior was comforting.Ã The guide also took me to the top of the building. The city was epic from the viewpoint. The city was subtle, and people were as small as ants.